Managing Conflict and Anger. UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGYManaging Conflict and Anger In a modern society, interactions with other people are inevitable.
The CMC provides trained personnel who share strategies. meet with groups of students needing support with anger & conflict management. anger management.
Whether at the workplace, home, school or any other social context one is expected to interact with others for the achievement of either individual or collective goals. In the organizational context, both employees and management officials are engaged in continuous consultations and relations in the workplace. As human beings it is expected that these interactions may be characterized by pleasantness or disagreements. While amicable interactions are beneficial to the individual and organization, disagreements relate to polarized interactions which undermine productivity. Among issues which may arise in the workplace are conflict and anger issues.
. at home, with caeers advice, free handbook. Note that each module in the Certificate In Personnel Management is a short. Conflict Management and Anger. Managing Conflict and Anger. The study has applied conflict and anger management techniques in a real life. Anderson, N. (2001). Handbook of. Students with OCD: A Handbook for School Personnel was born out of a need to fill. A Handbook for School Personnel provides. Anger and Conflict Management.
Conflict as indicated by Dubrin (2. On the other hand, anger is a consequence of pent up frustration over an existing conflict. As both issues may be detrimental to an individual's and organization's welfare, it is vital to derive strategies for alleviating conflicts and managing anger issues. We can help you to write your essay!
The cardinal principles of anger management are (a) taking constructive action on the precipitants of anger whenever possible, and (b) when no constructive action is.
Conflict resolution is a necessity in any organization largely because conflicts are more often than not part of the everyday operations. Therefore, the best alternative is to arm oneself and organizational members with ample anger management and conflict resolution skills. The capacity to resolve conflicts immediately they arise creates room for better performance and even aids the management of anger.
In addition, when individuals are able to understand themselves appropriately and develop tactics for controlling their anger emotions they are better placed at resolving conflicts. This paper seeks to apply the principles and conceptualizations of anger and conflict management in a real life workplace experience. The discussion will draw insight from this past experience with conflict situations and anger issues and in detailing the skills and tactics employed or lack thereof in the management of both. From these experience, the discussion will then proceed to predict amicable future management of anger and conflicts. Predominant in the paper is the comprehension that conflicts and anger are negative constructs which if not properly reiterated may cause harm to individuals or organizations.
However, the extent of negativity in conflicts is highly dependent on the reaction techniques used for addressing the conflicts. As will be illustrated in the paper, it is possible to alter conflicts into positive aspects in the workplace.
Dubrin (2. 00. 4) clearly outlines the relationship which exists between conflicts and anger. Anger is necessitated by both the events building up to a conflict and those which occur thereafter. It is often as a result of frustrations in either the conflict or the lack of its resolution.
This interrelation will also be out rightly elucidated in the discussion. It is critical to understand the root causes of conflict if one aims at comprehending conflict resolution. In fact Mcfarlane (2. It entails taking into account the behaviors and circumstances which instigate conflict behavior. The roots of conflict include the competition for resources which are limited in a bid to satisfy individual or collective needs.
Differences in opinions and objectives also heighten the probability for conflict. Others include class and gender differences, generation gaps, clashing personalities, sexual harassment and competing work and family demands. Regardless of these individual circumstances, the observable common characteristic is the presence of incompatible elements. As a junior manager in the workplace, I had been assigned the task of foreseeing the company's community service project. The project had been suggested as a form of giving back to the community where the large textile organization was located. During one of the meetings with other involved employees, it became eminent that most of the employees wanted a mildly engaging community service project like donating text books and sports facilities to schools.
On the other hand, I made it clear that the best form of community service would be a project which involved active engagement and interaction with the community. Following this, I made suggestions to formulate a fundraiser for the sports departments in the neighboring school or even partake in a cleanup activity of the surrounding environment.
Evident from discussions among the project members was the fact that those employees who supported a mildly active approach were in favor of not wasting their time and energy in doing good for the community. Those agreed with my suggestion felt that it was the best placed approach. At this particular time, a conflict had already emerged. The belief that either approaches were the best to both parties established a difference in preference and opinions. These beliefs and suggestions were not in tandem with each other.
An attempt to come to an understanding was not fruitful immediately after the conflict arose. As a result, most project members I included left the meeting feeling frustrated. As indicated by Macfarlane (2.
The feelings of frustration had definitely not been a direct consequence of the incompatibility of ideas proposed. It was as a result of the aggravation of the realization of incompatibility by emotions felt by both parties and their inadequacies in communicating their needs. This would later be evident in project discussions on resolving the conflict.
Even though this conflict was not of a large extent, it still created friction amongst employees meant to work towards increasing productivity. It stalled the process of developing the community service project which was a waste of the organization's time and resources. Conflicts have adverse effects when left unresolved and these are indicative of the same. Also, resolution of conflicts is vital as it undermines work relationships and costs both individuals and organizations heavily. Levine (1. 99. 8, p.
This is why it becomes crucial for employees to have conflict resolution skills at hand as they foster resolution and consequently high productivity. This essay is an example of a student's work. From the illustrated experience, this conflict had the potential of being both constructive and destructive if left unresolved. As a project manager, my responsibility dwelt on enhancing the functionality of this conflict and aiming at preventing any negative effects. For the conflict to be functional it was imperative that the resolutions assured the motivation and further energizing the involved employees into acquiring better problem solving skills and high creativity. The actual resolution of this conflict involved the reestablishing of relations with project members and restating the desired outcomes of the project. While doing so, I embarked on a mission of seeking to understand why the other party was keen on a mildly active approach for community service.
However, even then it was impossible to comprehend why these members did not understand that an active approach would serve the community better. It was then that project members became aggravated, with even others getting frustrated and angry. One of the members even banged the door on his way out from the meeting. It was clear that an amicable solution would be to just get rid of both suggestions and formulate a completely new approach which was agreeable to all. As pointed out in Dubrin (2.
Even though the heightened frustrations warranted such a decision, it was counterproductive to the organization's objectives. It moved the project a step backward and the incapacity to resolve the conflict was a strong predictor of such future conflicts.
More so, this conflict was left unutilized as a mechanism for fostering problem solving skills amongst employees. Faced with such a repercussive conflict, it is only logical to devise better ways of resolving the same sort of conflict. In the future, such a conflict can be better managed in a more cordial and functional environment. The appropriate approach to resolving this conflict involves the integration of such effective techniques like confrontation and problem solving, negotiating and bargaining, compromise and the management of anger. The guidelines of this process would be to avoid measures and solutions which are of a competitive form or those which were too relaxed. Therefore, as a project manager it would be my responsibility to initially acknowledge the existence of a conflict and decide to confront the opposing project members.
This confrontation is best done tactfully and the element of reasonableness implied throughout the process. With a mindset of cooperativeness and collaboration, the confrontation involves detailing my willingness to work together with the other members at resolving the conflict. Also, I am required to admit to the problematic extent of the conflict which may prompt the agreement of the other party.
The willingness for cooperation is only possible when both parties are guided by substantial constructs. This implies that causes of the conflict should not have been of an emotional nature but one which paved way for substantial reasoning and understanding the evident differences. If there are any pending anger issues amongst the members, it is appropriate to address them immediately so as they do not work against the conflict resolution process. Anderson (2. 00. 1, p. During the conflict resolution process, managing other people's anger can be done by through the three steps of anger management illustrated by Dubrin (2.
They include confronting containing and connecting. Any anger manifestations like tightened fists, dilated pupils and trembling lips should be closely monitored during the conflict resolution process. Project members who are angry should be confronted and questioned on the source of their anger. This is done tactfully in order to prevent further aggravation.
Managing " By the Book"By Paul Rao, Ph. D Paul Rao, Ph. D, is Director of Speech- Language Pathology Service and Co- Director, Stroke Recovery Program, for the National Rehabilitation Hospital, in Washington, DCYesterday, a Policy and Procedure (P& P) manual might have been regarded, at best, as a dust collector to which one referred as a reference of last resort.
At worst, it might have been used as a tool to slap an employee's wrist. Today, a P& P manual may be regarded as a living document of policies and proce- dures that form the foundation of any service delivery program, whether it be in a school, private practice, hospital, or other healthcare setting. The intent of this issue is to familiarize you with what commonly constitutes a P& P manual. Introduction. A P& P manual is required by accrediting, certifying, licensing, and regulatory bodies, such as the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO), the Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities (CARF), state licensing boards, state and local education agencies, and the Professional Services Board (PSB) of the American Speech- Language- Hearing Association.
Is a P& P manual a must? Absolutely! The legal and regulatory climate alone has changed so rapidly during the last decade that a host of new policy areas have emerged. The most recent and perhaps most dramatic requirements relate to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), [Public Law 1. Are you prepared to comply with this welcome law and corresponding regulations? A P& P manual is designed to equip both employer and employees with a means to ensure compliance with all relevant rules and regulations.
What is a Policy? According to the Bureau of Business Practice (BBP) (1. The key word here is guide. A good policy will not lock you into rigid procedures or decision making. Rather, it will provide guidance for handling a wide range of organizational and programmatic issues, and will establish a framework for both management and staff decision making. According to the BBP, good policies are: broad, current, comprehensive, inviolate, written to specify responsibility for action, and used fre- quently. These attributes should be considered if you want policies that are user- friendly, and convey the mission, philosophy, and goals of your program.
What is a Procedure? A procedure is a sequence of steps for completing a given activity. A procedure may outline the manner in which a particular policy is to be implemented, but it cannot take the place of that policy. Recall that a good policy is inviolate, that is, policies change slowly and infrequently if at all. Procedures, on the other hand, change often as dictated by any number of factors such as staffing, equipment, space, and tech- nology.
An earlier procedure related to a given policy may have required a number of steps which can now be eliminated as a result of new technology. Why a Manual? Policies and procedures must be documented in writing for several reasons, including the necessity to defend an action, a behavior, or a practice before an arbitration body. A P& P manual for your program provides the constancy necessary to deliver services in an efficient and logical manner. Memos and oral tradition are insufficient vehicles to disseminate policies and procedures. A P& P manual exists to answer the what and how of operations. It also meets one of the structural requirements of a quality improvement process. Without a P& P manual, it is likely that the responsible program would be cited by PSB, JCAHO, CARF, or other accrediting or licensing agencies for not complying with a standard.
As is the case in medical record's parlance, so too with policies and procedures- "if it isn't written, it didn't happen." The presence of a P& P manual, however, is certainly no guarantee of quality, but without it, one could not become accredited. Accreditation aside, a manager cannot operate effectively without written policies and procedures. While control of all management decisions may not be possible, a framework for decision making in important or particularly risk- prone areas (e. Where employee or client safety is concerned, the need for a clear policy is paramount. In fact, JCAHO surveyors, as part of the standard hospital survey, are required to conduct random interviews with employees to ascertain their knowledge of an organization's fire and safety policy GCAHO, 1. Thus, all policies must be available to all staff and written in such a way as to clearly specify the policy and procedures for a given issue: You want your policy manual to be as clear as possible because it often plays a key role in court if an employee sues you for wrongful termination or any other labor dispute. Many courts around the country have ruled that a policy handbook often serves as a contract between employees and employer.
Applegate, 1. 99. The P& P manual should not be designed to establish a set of rigid rules, but should be designed to enable managers to: a) appreciate how far the impact of their decisions might reach, b) encourage logical and consistent thinking; and c) provide an opportunity for all employees "to be singing from the same hymnal."Documentation Format. A speech- language pathology and audiology (SLP/A) department within a larger institution will require an institutional P& P manual including all P& Ps that apply throughout the institution or to multiple departments within the institution (such as those pertaining to Fire and Safety, or Equal Employment Opportunity).
P& Ps applicable to a single department only, such as a dysphagia assessment, are typically reviewed and approved by the appropriate department manager and responsible authority of the larger institution. See Appendix A [PDF] for a sample P& P on cardiopulmonary resuscitation). At the National Rehabilitation Hospital (NRH) in Washington, DC, it is required that all P& Ps be reviewed every two years. In actual practice, P& P manuals are reviewed far more frequently as new equipment is installed, new product fines are incorporated, and innovations in client care are instituted.
An outline of NRH responsibilities follows: 3. Senior Management (President, Vice President - Medical Director, Administrator, Associate/Assistant Administrators and Medical Directors)Reviews and approves all institution- wide policies and procedures. Assures that each policy and associated pro- cedures have been appropriately reviewed and represent the Board's philosophy.
Assures hospital- wide compliance. Service Director. Initiates, revises, reviews and approves all service specific policies and procedures and assures compliance with such. Initiates, revises, reviews and recommends appropriate hospital- wide policies and procedures. Informs subordinate staff of all policies and procedures.
Assures compliance with all policies and procedures. Maintains an ongoing monitoring procedure for timely review and update of all policies and procedures. Employees below Service Director level. Recommend new policies/ procedures and revision to existing policies/procedures to their Service Directors. Comply with all policies and procedures. Executive Secretary to Administrator.
Assigns hospital- wide Policies and Procedures numbers, and distributes new and revised policies and procedures. Applicability. Responsibility is assigned to the director of speech- language pathology and audiology, not just to implement the P& P process, but to keep staff informed of new or revised P& Ps and to ensure compliance with all P& Ps. An outline of the NRH P& P documentation format follows: 5. Documentation Format. Hospital- wide policies and procedures shall be documented on the NRH Hospital Policies and Procedures letterhead (see Appendix A).
The policy number is assigned by the Administrator's office. All hospital- wide policies and procedures shall be documented using the following format: Section. Section 1. 0 - Purpose a positive statement of the intention or aim of the policy conveyed to the reader in as few words as possible. Section 2. 0 - Policy a brief descriptive statement articulating the policy.
Section 3. 0 - Responsibilities an explanation of the policy and expectations of personnel who implement it. Section 4. 0 - Applicability Section 6.
Procedures. Section 6. References (if appropriate)5. Additional sections may be added when appropriate. Documented policies and pro- cedures shall always reflect original effective date and latest revision date. Service- specific policies and procedures shall be documented on the NRH Practices and Procedures letterhead.
Format should be consistent with that of hospital- wide policies and procedures. Procedure numbers are assigned by the individual service, using a numbered sequence which does not conflict with the hospital- wide policies and procedures numbering scheme. Sample Table of Contents of a P& P Manual(See Appendix B [PDF]) Your P& P manual should, at a minimum, address all areas for which there is an accreditation standard. For example, prior to a PSB survey, the department manager must conduct a self survey and review the current PSB standards (ASHA, 1.
The speech- language pathologists' and audiologists' P& P manual should have a policy addressing each PSB standard under the following broad categories: Program goals. Administration. Services. Personnel. Records. Physical plant and equipment. Program evaluation and quality improvement. The JCAHO manual for Survey Preparation for Physical Rehabilitation Services (JCAHO, 1. P& Ps for hospital- sponsored ambulatory care services: Standing orders.
Consultant services. Release of patients. Patient Bill of Rights.
Appointment system. Primary treating physician. Panic values (eg, blood chemistry result indicates immediate action)Reporting communicable diseases. Role in disaster. Protection of valuables. Specific procedures, specific location, specific practitioner.
Privacy and confidentiality.