Important! Freebase is read-only and will be shut-down. Topic. Created by book_bot on 7/15/2009. A Handbook of Wisdom A topic ignored in mainstream scientiﬁc inquiry for decades, wisdom is beginning to return to the place of reverence that it held in ancient. Wisdom or sapience is the ability to think and act using knowledge, experience, understanding, common sense, and insight.  Wisdom has been regarded as one of four. The Handbook of Ancient Wisdom [Cassandra Eason] on Amazon.com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This work draws together 40 different kinds of magic from around.
A Handbook of Wisdom is a collection of. The 1990 edited Wisdom book was not called a handbook. How did the ancient Greeks fathom the. Handbook on tHe Wisdom books and Psalms Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesiastes Song of Songs. though the ancient Hebrews produced few written texts apart from. Get this from a library! The handbook of ancient wisdom. [Cassandra Eason].
Wisdom - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Wisdom or sapience is the ability to think and act using knowledge, experience, understanding, common sense, and insight. Wisdom has been regarded as one of four cardinal virtues; and as a virtue, it is a habit or disposition to perform the action with the highest degree of adequacy under any given circumstance, and to avoid wrongdoing. This implies a possession of knowledge or the seeking of knowledge to apply to the given circumstance. This involves an understanding of people, objects, events, situations, and the willingness as well as the ability to apply perception, judgement, and action in keeping with the understanding of what is the optimal course of action. It often requires control of one's emotional reactions (the "passions") so that the universal principle of reason prevails to determine one's action. In short, wisdom is a disposition to find the truth coupled with an optimum judgement as to what actions should be taken. DefinitionsThe Oxford English Dictionary defines wisdom as "Capacity of judging rightly in matters relating to life and conduct; soundness of judgement in the choice of means and ends; sometimes, less strictly, sound sense, esp.
Knowledge (esp. of a high or abstruse kind); enlightenment, learning, erudition."Charles Haddon Spurgeon defined wisdom as "the right use of knowledge".Robert I. Sutton and Andrew Hargadon defined the "attitude of wisdom" as "acting with knowledge while doubting what one knows".Wisdom and knowledge have different meanings, but are often portrayed as synonyms.
This is corrected by giving an example: it's wise to run a successful business because wisdom includes action. It's nothing more than smart to write a business plan proposing a successful business because knowledge is strictly cognitive. The difference in knowledge is knowing it; wisdom is doing it.Philosophical perspectivesThe ancient Greeks considered wisdom to be an important virtue, personified as the goddesses.
Metis and Athena. Athena is said to have sprung from the head of Zeus. She was portrayed as strong, fair, merciful, and chaste. To Socrates and Plato, philosophy was literally the love of Wisdom (philo- sophia). This permeates Plato's dialogues, especially The Republic, in which the leaders of his proposed utopia are to be philosopher kings, rulers who understand the Form of the Good and possess the courage to act accordingly. Aristotle, in his Metaphysics, defined wisdom as the understanding of causes, i. The ancient Romans also valued wisdom. It was personified in Minerva, or Pallas.
She also represents skillful knowledge and the virtues, especially chastity. Her symbol was the owl which is still a popular representation of wisdom, because it can see in darkness. She was said to be born from Jupiter's forehead.Wisdom is also important within Christianity.
Jesus emphasized it.[1. Paul the Apostle, in his first epistle to the Corinthians, argued that there is both secular and divine wisdom, urging Christians to pursue the latter. Prudence, which is intimately related to wisdom, became one of the four cardinal virtues of Catholicism. The Christian philosopher Thomas Aquinas considered wisdom to be the "father" (i.
In the Inuit tradition, developing wisdom was one of the aims of teaching. An Inuit Elder said that a person became wise when they could see what needed to be done and do it successfully without being told what to do. Educational perspectivesTruth and Wisdom assist History in writing by Jacob de Wit, 1. Public schools in the US have an approach to character education.
Eighteenth century philosophers such as Benjamin Franklin, referred to this as training wisdom and virtue. Traditionally, schools share the responsibility to build character and wisdom along with parents and the community.[1. Nicholas Maxwell, a contemporary philosopher in the United Kingdom, advocates that academia ought to alter its focus from the acquisition of knowledge to seeking and promoting wisdom, which he defines as the capacity to realize what is of value in life, for oneself and others.[1. He teaches that new knowledge and technological know- how increase our power to act which, without wisdom, may cause human suffering and death as well as human benefit. Wisdom is the application of knowledge to attain a positive goal by receiving instruction in governing oneself. Psychological perspectivesPsychologists have gathered data on commonly held beliefs or folk theories about wisdom.[1.
These analyses indicate that although "there is an overlap of the implicit theory of wisdom with intelligence, perceptiveness, spirituality and shrewdness, it is evident that wisdom is a distinct term and not a composite of other terms."[1. Many, but not all, studies find that adults' self- ratings of perspective/wisdom do not depend on age.[1. This stands in contrast to the popular notion that wisdom increases with age,[1.
IQ or gender, older adults possess superior reasoning about societal and interpersonal conflicts.[1. In many cultures, the name for third molars, which are the last teeth to grow, is etymologically linked with wisdom, e.
English wisdom tooth. In 2. 00. 9, a study reviewed which brain processes might be related to wisdom.[1. Researchers in the field of positive psychology have defined wisdom as the coordination of "knowledge and experience" and "its deliberate use to improve well being."[1. With this definition, wisdom can supposedly be measured using the following criteria: [1.
A wise person has self- knowledge. A wise person seems sincere and direct with others. A wise person's actions are consistent with his/her ethical opinions. Measurement instruments that use these criteria have acceptable to good internal consistency and low to moderate test- retest reliability (r in the range of 0.
John Vervaeke has argued for a cognitive science of wisdom and argues that basic relevance realization processes that underlie cognition, when fed back onto themselves and made self- referential lead to the enhanced insight abilities we associated with wisdom.[2. Dr. B. Legesse et al., a neuropsychiatrist at Mc. Lean Hospital/Harvard Medical School, offers "a theoretical definition that takes into account many cultural, religious, and philosophical themes is that wisdom represents a demonstrated superior ability to understand the nature and behavior of things, people, or events." He states "this results in an increased ability to predict behavior or events which then may be used to benefit self or others." He furthermore adds "there is more often a desire to share the accrued benefits with a larger group for the purpose of promoting survival, cohesion, or well- being of that group. The benefits do not result from malicious or antisocial intents or inequitable behavior. Environmental factors, such as family, education, socioeconomic status, culture, and religion, are involved in generating the milieu in which the personal value system develops.
Many of these same factors also influence how a given community decides whether wisdom is present or not. This model of wisdom relies on the individualвЂ™s ability to generate a mental representation of the self (cognitive, emotional, and physical), the external world, and the dynamic relationship of the self with the external world." Dr. Legesse proposes that "the neural (brain) systems critical to enable these functions are distributed but heavily dependent on those that support memory, learning, understanding other peopleвЂ™s mental states (Theory of Mind), and assigning relative value to information." The neuroanatomy of wisdom he says depends on "the three frontosubcortical neural networks, the limbic system, and the mirror neuron system" which "are of particular importance for supporting these activities." He describes the function of this neural system as working "in concert to weigh and estimate the risks and benefits of various mentally modeled courses of action to generate wisdom." It was proposed that "the neural substrates of empathy may be conceptualized as biasing the information processing network in favor of valuing others, interpersonal communication, cooperation, and community."[2. Sapience"Sapience" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Sentience. Sapience is often defined as wisdom, or the ability of an organism or entity to act with appropriate judgement, a mental faculty which is a component of intelligence or alternatively may be considered an additional faculty, apart from intelligence, with its own properties.
Robert Sternberg[2. Displaying sound judgement in a complex, dynamic environment is a hallmark of wisdom. The word sapience is derived from the Latinsapientia, meaning "wisdom."[2.
Related to this word is the Latin verbsapere, meaning "to taste, to be wise, to know"; the present participle of sapere forms part of Homo sapiens, the Latin binomial nomenclature created by Carl Linnaeus to describe the humanspecies. Linnaeus had originally given humans the species name of diurnus, meaning man of the day. But he later decided that the dominating feature of humans was wisdom, hence application of the name sapiens.
His chosen biological name was intended to emphasize man's uniqueness and separation from the rest of the animal kingdom. In fantasy fiction and science fiction, sapience often describes an essential property that bestows "personhood" onto a non- human. It indicates that a computer, alien, mythical creature or other similar will be treated as a being with capabilities and desires as any human character, often eligible to full civil rights. The words "sentience," "self- awareness," and "consciousness" are used in similar ways in science fiction.[2. Religious perspectivesSome religions have specific teachings relating to wisdom. Ancient EgyptSia represents the personification of wisdom or the god of wisdom in Ancient Egyptian Mythology.
A Handbook of Wisdom. Cambridge University Press. A Handbook of Wisdom - Psychological Perspectives - Edited by Robert J.
Sternberg and Jennifer Jordan. Frontmatter/Prelims.
A Handbook of Wisdom. A topic ignored in mainstream scientific inquiry for decades, wisdom is beginning to return to the place of reverence that it held in ancient schools of intellectual study. A Handbook of Wisdom explores wisdom’s promise for helping scholars and lay people to understand the apex of human thought and behavior. At a time when poor choices are being made by notably intelligent and powerful individuals, this book presents analysis and review on a form of reasoning and decision making that is not only productive and prudent but also serves a beneficial purpose for society. A Handbook of Wisdom is a collection of chapters from some of the most prominent scholars in the field of wisdom research. Written from multiple perspectives, including psychology, philosophy, and religion, this book provides the reader with an in- depth understanding of wisdom’s past, present, and possible future direction within literature, science, and society.
Robert J. Sternberg is IBM Professor of Psychology and Education at Yale and Director of the PACE Center at Yale. He was the 2. 00. President of the American Psychological Association.
He is the author of more than 1,0. He has won numerous awards from professional associations and holds five honorary doctorates. Jennifer Jordan is an advanced doctoral student in psychology at Yale University. She has studied wisdom under the guidance of both Robert Sternberg at Yale and Paul Baltes at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development in Berlin, Germany.
She is the recipient of a John F. Enders Grant and an American Psychological Association Award for her dissertation, which examines moral awareness and business expertise. Psychological Perspectives. Edited by. ROBERT J. STERNBERGYale University. JENNIFER JORDANYale University. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESSCambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo.
Cambridge University Press. West 2. 0th Street, New York, NY 1. USAwww. cambridge. Information on this title: www. Cambridge University Press 2.
This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exceptionand to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,no reproduction of any part may take place withoutthe written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2. Printed in the United States of America. A catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data. A handbook of wisdom : psychological perspectives /edited by Robert J.
Sternberg, Jennifer Jordan. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0- 5. 21- 8. ISBN 0- 5. 21- 5. Wisdom. 2. Conduct of life. I. Sternberg, Robert J. II. Jordan, Jennifer, 1.
III. Title. BJ1. 59. H2. 9 2. 00. 51. ISBN- 1. 3 9. 78- 0- 5.
ISBN- 1. 0 0- 5. ISBN- 1. 3 9. 78- 0- 5. ISBN- 1. 0 0- 5. Cambridge University Press has no responsibility forthe persistence or accuracy of URLs for external orthird- party Internet Web sites referred to in this bookand does not guarantee that any content on such. Web sites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.
Contents. List of Contributorspage vii. Forewordxi Monika Ardelt. PART I: THEORIES OF WISDOM ACROSS TIME, CULTURE, AND PEOPLES1. Wisdom in History. James E. Birren and Cheryl M. Svensson. 2. Cultural Foundations of Wisdom: An Integrated Developmental Approach.
Masami Takahashi and Willis F. Overton. 3. Philosophical Theories of Wisdom.
Lisa M. Osbeck and Daniel N. Robinson. 4. From the Inside Out: People's Implicit Theories of Wisdom. Susan Bluck and Judith Glück.
The Psychology of Wisdom: Theoretical and Empirical Challenges. Ute Kunzmann and Paul B. Baltes. PART II: THE DEVELOPMENT OF WISDOM ACROSS THE LIFESPAN6. Young and Growing Wiser: Wisdom during Adolescence and Young Adulthood. M. J. Richardson and M. Pasupathi. 7. The Quest for Wisdom in Adulthood: A Psychological Perspective.
Jennifer Jordan. PART III: WISDOM AND THE PERSON8. Wisdom and Personality. Ursula M. Staudinger, Jessica Dörner, and Charlotte Mickler.
The Role of Emotions in the Development of Wisdom. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi and Jeanne Nakamura.
PART IV: WISDOM IN SOCIETY1. Morality, Ethics, and Wisdom. Joel J. Kupperman. Crossing Boundaries to Generative Wisdom: An Analysis of Professional Work.
Jeffrey L. Solomon, Paula Marshall, and Howard Gardner. Wisdom in Public Policy. Lloyd S. Etheredge. PART V: THE ABSENCE OF WISDOM1. Foolishness. 33. 1 Robert J.
Sternberg Discussion. Warren S. Brown. Author Index. Subject Index. 37. List of Contributors. Monika Ardelt. University of Florida. Gainesville, FLPaul B. Baltes. Max Planck Institute of Human Development.
Berlin, Germany. James E. Birren. University of California. Los Angeles, CASusan Bluck. University of Florida. Gainesville, FLWarren S. Brown. Fuller Theological Seminary. Pasadena, CAMihaly Csikszentmihalyi.
Claremont Graduate University. Claremont, CAJessica Dörner. International University Bremen. Bremen, Germany. Lloyd S. Etheredge. Yale University.
New Haven, CTHoward Gardner. Harvard Graduate School of Education. Cambridge, MAJudith Glück. University of Vienna.
Jennifer Jordan. Yale University. New Haven, CTUte Kunzmann. Max Planck Institute of Human Development Berlin, Germany. Joel J. Kupperman. Harvard Graduate School of Education. Cambridge, MAPaula Marshall.
Harvard Graduate School of Education. Cambridge, MACharlotte Mickler. International University Bremen. Bremen, Germany. Jeanne Nakamura. Claremont Graduate University. Claremont, CALisa M.
Osbeck. State University of West Georgia. Carrollton, GAWillis F. Overton. Temple University. Philadelphia, PAM. Pasupathi. University of Utah.
Salt Lake City, UTM. J. Richardson. University of Utah. Salt Lake City, UTDaniel N. Robinson. Philosophy Faculty, Oxford University, UKDistinguished Professor Emeritus, Georgetown University. Jeffrey L. Solomon. Harvard Graduate School of Education.
Cambridge, MAUrsula M. Staudinger. International University Bremen. Bremen, Germany. Robert J. Sternberg. Yale University. New Haven, CTCheryl M. Svensson. California State University.
Fullerton, CAMasami Takahashi. Northeastern Illinois University. Chicago, ILForeword. Monika Ardelt. Back in 1. I was a graduate student at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, I decided to investigate predictors of life satisfaction in old age as my dissertation topic. I was not convinced by the traditional sociological explanation that well- being in old age depended mostly on the conditions older people encountered, such as physical health, finances, socioeconomic status, social involvement, and residential situation. I was searching for a concept that would represent the internal strength of older adults, which enabled some older people to be satisfied with their life despite adverse circumstances.
After studying the literature on lifelong psychosocial growth, it occurred to me that the acquisition of wisdom might hold the key to subjective well- being in old age. Although I now had the concept, I had no idea how to define and much less how to measure wisdom. I remember going to the library to pick up another book on the life course and aging when, right next to it, I saw the edited book by Sternberg (1. Wisdom: Its Nature, Origins, and Development. It felt like a book sent by heaven, and it became instantly my “bible” on wisdom. Up to this point I had no idea that wisdom was actually a topic of modern scientific inquiries and that respected researchers had tackled this somewhat esoteric topic.
Not that it made my life much easier at first. As Birren and Svensson mention in this Handbook, the 1. Wisdom book resulted in 1. However, the 1. 99. Vivian Clayton (e.
Clayton & Birren,(1. Ardelt,2. 00. 3). The 1. Wisdom book was not called a handbook, and rightly so. Contemporary empirical research on wisdom was in its infancy, and there just was not enough research to summarize and synthesize to justify the title of “Handbook.” Yet, times have changed and the publication of the present Handbook of Wisdom was sorely needed. In fact, wisdom research has grown tremendously during the past 1.
A search in Psyc. INFO (via EBSCO Host Research Databases) under the subject or key concept of “wisdom” yielded 1. Although such a search is not necessarily precise because not all relevant literature is listed and some listed items are unrelated to wisdom research, it still is an, albeit crude, indicator for the exponential progress in wisdom research. It appears that between 1. Whereas the 1. 99.
Wisdom book was able to present almost the entirety of contemporary wisdom research, this is no longer possible in a single volume. Yet, the Handbook of Wisdom comes close to this task. It provides an extensive overview of the state of the art of modern inquiries and debates in the study of wisdom. After more than a quarter century of ever- growing wisdom research, does a uniform definition of wisdom exist? The answer is still no, but we might be getting closer to a common and generally agreed- upon definition of wisdom, although measuring wisdom is a different matter. In fact, the authors in Part I of the Handbook of Wisdom – the largest section of the volume – address the questions of what wisdom is; how the answer varies across time, culture, and peoples; and why wisdom disappeared until recently from modern psychological and philosophical research. Birren and Svensson investigate how the concept of wisdom evolved historically, starting with the ancient Sumerians and ending with modern psychological sciences.
Both Birren and Svensson and Takahashi and Overton unearth the roots of contemporary definitions of wisdom. Takahashi and Overton focus particularly on the difference between Western and Eastern wisdom traditions and introduce a culturally inclusive developmental model of wisdom that integrates the (Western) analytic mode with the (Eastern) synthetic mode of wisdom.